نه‌ته‌وه‌یه‌كگرتووه‌كان، ٣٥ هه‌مین خولی كۆبوونه‌وه‌كانی شوورای مافه‌كانی مرۆڤ، ژنێڤ، له‌ سه‌ر پرسی زیندانیانی سیاسی و كۆڵبه‌رانی كورد

نه‌ته‌وه‌یه‌كگرتووه‌كان، ٣٥ هه‌مین خولی كۆبوونه‌وه‌كانی شوورای مافه‌كانی مرۆڤ، ژنێڤ، له‌ سه‌ر پرسی زیندانیانی سیاسی و كۆڵبه‌رانی كورد

وتاری كۆمه‌ڵه‌ی مافی مرۆڤی كوردستانی ئێران ژنێڤ له ٣٥ هه‌مین خولی كۆبوونه‌وه‌كانی شوورای مافه‌كانی مرۆڤ، ژنێڤ، له‌ سه‌ر پرسی زیندانیانی سیاسی و كۆڵبه‌رانی كورد
به‌رێز سه‌رۆك،
كۆمه‌ڵه‌ی مافی مرۆڤی كوردستانی ئێران ژنێڤ سرنجی شوورای مافی مرۆڤی نه‌ته‌وه‌یه‌كگرتووه كان‌ ڕاده‌كێشێ بۆ‌‌ سه‌ر پرسی زیندانیانی سیاسی و كوشتنی ناڕه‌وای كۆڵبه‌رانی كورد له‌‌ سایه‌ی ده‌سڵاتی كۆماری ئیسلامی ئێران‌.

ئێمه ئه‌وپه‌ڕی ‌ نیگرانی قووڵی خۆمان دژی زیادبوونی كاره‌ساتهێنه‌ری گرتنی نا ڕه‌و‌ای هاوڵاتیانی كورد و كوشتنی كوێرانه‌ی كۆڵبه‌رانی كورد له‌ لایه‌ن كۆماری ئیسلامی ئێران ڕاده‌گه‌یه‌نین. به‌ پێی ڕاپۆرتی ڕاپۆرتێری نه‌ته‌وه‌یه‌كگرتووه‌كان بۆ ئێران، زیندانیانی سیاسی كورد نیوه‌ی كۆی زیندانیانی ئێران پێكدێنن و له‌ سه‌ره‌تای ساڵی ٢٠١٧ تاكوو ئێستا، زیاتر له‌ 269 هاوڵاتی كورد به‌ندكراون و به‌ شێكی زۆر له‌م كه‌سانه‌ به‌ تاوانی هه‌ڵواسراوی پرۆپاگه‌نده‌ دژی ده‌وڵه‌ت و محاربه‌ واته ‌دژا یه‌تی كردنی خودا به‌ زیندانی درێژخایه‌ن و ئیعدام سزا دراون.

حوكم و زیندانی كردنی نادادپه‌روه‌رانه‌ی به‌ڕێزان محه‌ممه‌د نه‌زه‌ری و عوسمان موسته‌فاپووڕ بۆ زیاتر له‌ 25 ‌ ساڵ به‌ تاوانی ئه‌ندامه‌تی له‌ پارتێكی سیاسی كورد، نیشانه‌ی بێڕێزی ته‌واوی كۆماری ئیسلامیه‌ بۆ په‌یماننامه‌ و جارنامه‌ی مافه‌كانی مرۆڤ و مافه‌كانی ئازادی به‌یانی و ڕێكخستن.
ده‌وڵه‌تی ڕووحانی له‌ هه‌ر دوو ده‌وره‌ی هه‌ڵبژاردنكانی سه‌رۆك كۆماری، به‌ڵێنی گۆڕینی ڕه‌وانگه‌ی ئه‌منیه‌تی له‌ سه‌ر كوردستان دابوو به‌ڵام به‌ پێچه‌وانه‌، ڕێژه‌ی له‌ سێداره‌دان، كوشتنی كوێرانه‌ی كۆڵبه‌ران و سته‌م به‌ شێوه‌یه‌كی كاره‌ساتهێنه‌ر ڕوو له‌ هڵكشانه‌ و زیادی كردووه‌.
له‌ ساڵی 2016٦ و 5 مانگی سه‌ره‌تای ساڵی 2017، زیاتر له‌ 212 كۆڵبه‌ری كورد بوونه‌ته‌ قوربانی ده‌ستڕێژی و هێرش و گوله‌ی هێزه‌كانی سنووری كۆماری ئیسلامی به‌ هۆی كورد بوونیانه‌وه‌. به‌ پێی یاسا نێونه‌ته‌وه‌یه‌كان، كه‌مایه‌تیه‌كان مافی پاراستنیان هه‌یه‌ و ده‌بێ بپارێزرێن له‌ توند و تیژی و كۆمه‌ڵ كوژی و هه‌ر چه‌شنه‌ سته‌م.

له‌ كۆتاییدا، ئێمه‌ خوازیارین له‌ شوورای مفه‌كانی مرۆڤ و كۆمه‌ڵه‌ی نێونه‌ته‌وه‌یی كه‌ به‌ هۆی له‌ به‌رچاوگرنه‌گرتنی په‌یمانه‌ نێونه‌ته‌وه‌یه‌كان و پێشێلكرندی سیستتیماتیكی مافه‌كانی مرۆڤ له‌ لایه‌ن كۆماری ئیسلامی و هاوكاری نه‌كردنی نه‌ته‌وه‌یه‌كگرتووه‌كان له‌ ماوه‌ی 37 ساڵی ڕابردوودا، كۆمیسیۆنێكی لێكۆڵینه‌ بۆ ئێران پێكبهێنن.
ته‌یموور ئه‌لیاسی
كۆمه‌ڵه‌ی مافی مرۆڤی كوردستانی ئێران ژنێڤ
ژنێڤ، نه‌ته‌وه‌یه‌كگرتووه‌كان، ١٥ ژووئه‌نی ٢٠١٧

The KMMK-G’s report on indiscriminate killings of Kurdish kulbaran/Kasebkaran (border couriers/Tradersmen) by Iranian border security forces in 2014

 

 The KMMK-G’s report on indiscriminate killings of Kurdish kulbaran/Kasebkaran (border couriers/Tradersmen) by Iranian border security forces in 2014

 

Despite the new administration pledges to change the government security approach towards Iranian Kurdistan, the number of indiscriminate killings of Kurdish Kulbaran/kasebkaran (border couriers-tradesmen) by Iranian security forces, is dramatically rising. Due to high rate of unemployment and the land contamination by landmines and explosive remnants of war, the Kurdish youth and farmers from four Kurdish provinces of Kermanshah, Kordistan, Ilam and West Azerbaijan engage in smuggling commodities such items as tea, tobacco and fuel to earn a living.

The Association for Human Rights in Kurdistan of Iran-Geneva (KMMK-G) has received reports of 70 cases of government security force’s shooting on Kurdish Kulbars in 2014. According to information received and listed below, at least 30 border couriers were killed and 30 other wounded by the government border security forces without respecting even the Iranian domestic law, which, authorize the use of lethal force only as a last resort.

A summary of victims of indiscriminate killings of Kurdish Kulbaran (border couriers) in 2014:

Ramiar IBRAHIMI, a Kulbar, age 33, from “Bêjwê” village from Urumiya town, was shot by border security forces on the head and wounded seriously (at coma) on 31.12.2013[1].

  • Kawa MUSTAFAI, age 24, Kulbar, from Saqez town along with another youth named Mr. Pouria ASSADI, age 30, Kulbar, from Shabad town were killed on January 1st, 2014. The name of officer who shot them is known as Mr. Rashidian.
  • Hossein DAWARI, age 55, from Ilam province, stepped on landmine and lost his life on January 3, 2014[2].
  • Saman KHEZRI known as “Soori”, son of Rahman NALASI from Sardasht town, a Kulbar, age 26, was shot dead by security forces on the night of January 4, 2014[3].
  • Nader son of Rahmani Mam Hossein, from “Têbatî” village, was injured on January 16, 2014[4].
  • Wahid TAWFIQI son of Haji Abdullah Gakeyee, from “Bêtiushi” village from Alan Sardasht town, was shot dead by border security forces.
  • Foad ROSTAMI son of Rashid, a Kulbar, age 19, from “Salhawi” village, from Saqez town, stepped on landmines and lost his right leg[5].
  • Salam SAHRAYEE, a Kulbar, from “Soma” village was arrested by “Parikhan” military base on January 22, 2014[6]. His brother Mr. Shukri SAHRAYEE, a Kulbar, was killed in 2013.
  • Three Kulbar: Mr. Zakaria MOHAMMADI, Mr. Didar QADERI and Mr. Lughman NAZI were arrested and sentenced to pay 900 million Tomans, on January 26, 2014.
  • Four Kulbar: Mr. Fakhir SHINODUKANE son of Ahmed from “GESSIAN” village, Mr. Shaker SHINODUKANE son of Ahmed from “GESSIAN” village, Mr. Adam GERDIPOUR son of Mustafa form “Shekhzard” village and Mr. Khabat son of Ismael from “Dezê” village from Urumiya were all dead due to snow and the cold[7].
  • Soran, a Kulbar, age 23, from “Wawan” village from Sardasht town, shot dead by security forces on Febraury 5, 2014. His colleague Mr. Ahmed son Jalal, from “Choman” village from Sardasht, was also injured[8].
  • Salahaddin BRUKI son of Issa, a Kulbar, age 28, father of a 3 years old child, from “Nawar” village from Chalduran, was shot dead by border security forces on February 16, 2014[9].
  • Jalal son of Haji Qaderian, a Kulbar, from “Anjina” village next to “Balasan” town of Baneh, was seriously wounded by security forces based in the border of “Namashir” in Baneh, on February 17, 2014[10].
  • Rajab SHEKHANI, a Kulbar, from “Nawsud” (Kermanshah province), was arrested in “Shakhi Qala” area by security forces, after public beating, he was sent to jail on February 21, 2014[11].
  • Ibrahim SA’EEDUNIA, a Kulbar, age 25, from “Pirsaqay” from Mariwan town, was hit by a security forces car and wounded on February 24, 2014[12].
  • Wahab HOSSEINI son of Walayat, a Kulbar, age 26, was wounded by security forces on February 24, 2014[13].
  • Aref PIROTI son of Mussa, a Kulbar, from “Targawar” area of Urumiya town, was shot dead in”Gali Bardarash” area by border security forces on February 27, 2014[14].
  • Jasim SHAHI, a Kulbar, from Mahabad town, was shot by security forces and was seriously wounded[15].
  • Rahim RAHIMZADEH son of Kwêkha Mina, a Kulbar, age 35, father is marred and is has two children. He is from “Balasan” village next to “Namsahir” from Baneh town. He was shot by security forces of Namshir military base and was wounded in both legs on March 6, 2014[16].
  • Omar MORADI, a Kulbar, age 30, married, from “Kali Tata” area from Mariwan town, next to “Jalana” military base, was shot dead by security forces on March 17, 2014[17].
  • Na’eem son of SADIQ, a Kulbar, from “Teshar” village from Nawsud town (Kermanshah province) was arrested by border security forces on April 20, 2014[18].
  • Rahim PAIRAWEE son of Aziz, a Kulbar, from Urumiya, under the fire of security forces, he has fallen to a river and lost his life on April 26, 2014[19].
  • Rezgar RAWSHANI son of Ata, a Kulbar, from Saqez town, stepped on landmines in the “Hangazhal” border areas and lost a leg on April 26, 2014[20].
  • Faisal, married and has two children, a Kulbar, from “Susanawa” village from Margawar in Urumiya area was shot by security forces and wounded on May 4, 2014[21].
  • Yasin RAZAI son of Darwêsh Ahmad, a Kulbar, from “Qalicha” village from “SalaBawajani” Kermanshah, was shot by security forces and was wounded on May 5, 2014[22].
  • Salah WAISI son of Aziz, from Juwanro area, was shot dead in “Bezmirawa” area from Sarpulezahab town (Kermanshah province) by security forces May 7, 2014[23].
  • Hussein PARWAZ (QURBANI), married and father of two children, a Kulbar, from Mahabad town, he was shot dead by security forces in the areas between Miraw- Piranshar and “Chako” village on May 22, 2014[24].
  • Ahmad MIRAWEE, a Kulbar, from “Mirawee” village from Baneh, was shot dead by security forces on May 27, 2014[25].
  • Tawfiq YUSUFI, a Kulbar, age 35, from Salams area, was shot dead in the Urumiya border areas by security forces on June 1st, 2014[26].
  • Ibrahim RASULI son of Mahmud, married, a Kulbar, from “Gerdashinan” village, was shot dead in “Nêrgizhan” area by security force of Piranshar, on June 3, 2014[27].
  • Sahyad MIRKHANPOUR son of Lezgin, a Kulbar, from “Brasipi” village in “Silwanai” area of Urumiya, was shot and seriously wounded by security forces in Margawar on June 8, 2014[28].
  • Osman KHEZRIAN, married and father of two children, a Kulbar, age 33, from “Gulênê” village, was shot dead by border security forces in “Silwî” village in Piranshar twon, on June 8, 2014[29].
  • Farhad AHMADZADEH son of Abdullah, age 24, a Kulbar, was shot and seriously wounded next to “Balsan” military bases, on June 8, 2014[30].
  • Azad SHEKHAYEE, age 34, married and father of three children, from “Goline” village from Alan Sardasht town, was shot dead in “Mêrgas” area by border security forces on June 20, 2014[31].
  • Mohammad QURDUEE MILAN, a Kulbar, age 25, from “Aland” area of Xoy town, stepped on landmine and lost a leg on June 21, 2014[32].
  • Farshad HOSSEINI, from Pawa town, n the suspicion of having smuggles items in his car, he was shot dead by security forces on June 28, 2014[33].
  • Qader BARIKA, a Kulbar, age 35, married and father of two children, from “Mamloo” village of Naghada town. He was shot and wounded and then arrested in “Singan” village in Shno town, on July 3, 2014[34].
  • Ayub Sofi MOHAMMADI, son of Wasta Hussein, age 37, a Kulbar, from “Konalajan” village of Piranshar, was shot and wounded by border security forces in “Haji Ibrahims mountains” areas, on July 9, 2014[35].
  • Morad IBRAHIMI, age 22, a Kulbar, from “Konalajan” village of Piranshar, was shot and wounded by border security forces in “Haji Ibrahims mountains” areas, on July 9, 2014[36].
  • Mustafa RIZI, age 32, from “Saidaw” area of Shno, after receiving a prior threat and warning from Shno twon Pasdaran force Commander (Mr. Jalil Panah), was shot dead in a suspicious was, on July 10, 2014. In another similar situation, a young man called Mr. Khaled SALIHPOUR, from Saqez, was shit dead next to “Lagzayee” dam in Saqez, on July 6, 2014[37].
  • Ayub FAQIZADEH, age 26, a Kolbar, married and father of a child from “Konalajan” area of Piranshar, was shot and wounded in “Bard u naz” area by border security forces on July 16, 2014[38].
  • Habib QADERI, married, a Kulbar, from “Salabawajani” area (Kermanshah), was shot and wounded by border security forces on July 25, 2014. He was carrying two jerry cans of oil according witnesses on July 26, 2014[39].
  • Aref IBRAHIMPOUR, a Kulbar, from “Barbaru” village of “Barandêzi “ area in Urumiya, was shot dead in the border area of “Nasnawê” village in “Nalosi” area of Shno by security forces on July 26, 2014[40].
  • Hossein QADERNAZHAD, from “Bani Huya” village of “Salabawajani” area, was shot dead by direct firing of security forces in “Shekhsala” area under suspicion of porting smuggled items, on August 1st, 2014[41].
  • Salar SHAHMORADI, age 40, was shot dead under suspicious of smuggling by security forces on Augu 2, 2014. While Mr. Shahmoradi was dring his Toyota, he went under firing behind and shot dead[42].
  • Aziz ISMAILI from “Dola Germêy” of Sardasht area while returning to his place by car with his daughter, he goes under border security forces bullet firing and his daughter Ms. Mujda was seriously wounded on August 11, 2014[43].
  • Assa’ad HAJIHOSSEINI, a Kulbar, age 40, was shot dead by border security forces on August 11, 2014[44].
  • Mr Saeed Kamal ABTAHI, married and father of three children, from “Bari Shelan” area of Mahabad town, a businessman, went under security forces firing in “Chiana” trading area and was seriously wounded and a dead 4 days later, on August 13, 2014[45].
  • Salar AZARBARZIN, age 17, son of Askandar, from “Konakhani” area of Piranshar, was shot dead by security forces in “Konakhan” area, on August 13, 2014[46].
  • Farhad (Jamshid) SADIQINAZHAD son of Hossein, age 17, known as “Baga”, a Kulbar, from “Baninar” area of “Shekhsala” border, was shot and wounded seriously by Commandar “ Mr. Pahlawani” of border security forces on August 21, 2014[47].
  • Khaleq KHALAYEE, from Alan Sardasht region, was shot and wounded on the leg by border security forces in “Mêrgasê” area on Agust 30, 2014[48].
  • Arash KHUDAMORADI, a Kulbar, from “Zalu” village of Rawansar town (Kermanshah) was shot dead in the head by border security forces under suspicion of porting smuggled items, on September 9, 2014[49].
  • Ramiar IBRAHIMI, a Kulbar, from “Bêjwê” village of Sardasht town, was seriously wounded in the head by border security forces, on September 9, 2014[50].
  • Edris IBRAHIMI son of Mahmud, married, a Kulbar, age 35, from “Qara Khedri” village of “Lajani” area in Piranshar, was shot in the “Melamar” border area, was shot dead by “ Pasdaran Military Force Unit”, on September 10, 2014[51].
  • Sulaiman IBRAHIMI son of Mahmud (older brother of Edris), a Kulbar, age 40, from “Qara Khedri” village of “Lajani” area in Piranshar, was shot in the “Melamar” border area, was shot and seriously wounded by “ Pasdaran Military Force Unit”, on September 10, 2014[52].
  • Omar SULTANI, a Kulbar, from Piranshar was also wounded by border security forces on September 10, 2014[53].
  • Zahir SARBAZI, a Kulbar, from Urumiya town, was shot dead in “Sêgreka” border area by security forces on September 16, 2014[54].
  • Mehdi, a Kulbar, from Urumiya town, was shot and seriously wounded in “Sêgreka” border area by security forces on September 16, 2014[55].
  • Pidram MOHAMMADI son of Nawshirwan, age 18, a Kulbar, from “Seryas” village was shot dead in “Marakhêl” border area of Pawa town, on September 29, 2014[56].
  • Hawraman HOSSEINI son of Fatah, a Kulbar, Mr. Rêkewt MOHAMMADI son of Qader, a Kulbar, Mr. Arash Hosseini son of Baram, Mr. Shêrzad PAKSURUSHT son Hama Salim a Kulbar and Jalil HOSSEINI son of Qader a Kulbar, were all arrested in an ambuscade by border security forces. Mr. Baram the father of Arash HOSSEINI dies from a heart attack after hearing that his son was ambuscaded by military forces on October 1st, 2014[57].
  • Massoud ISSAPOUR, a Kulbar, from “Anbê” village of “Targawarê” area in Urumiya, was shot and wounded border area by border security forces on October 3, 2014[58].
  • Haji RAHMAN, a Kulbar, from “Shilani” area in Mahabad, was shot and wpunded by border security forces on October 5, 2014[59].
  • Rahman QARACHOM, a Kulbar, fleeing the border security, has fallen and broken a leg on October 5, 2014[60].
  • Burhan AGHAYEE son of Afrasyab, a Kulbar, from Mariwan and was wounded in “Siazakh” area by “Qamishala” border security forces base, on October 9, 2014[61].
  • Saeed WAISI, from “Naroy” village of Pawa town, while driving to Nawsud, he went under security firing and was wounded on October 20, 2014[62].
  • Makwan WAISI, a Kulbar, from Pawa town, was shot and wounded by border security forces on October 23, 2014[63].
  • Mohammad ISMAILNAZHAD known as Mohamad Darwêsh Ibrahim, from Piranshar, was shot dead by security forces in “Shênawi” area, on December 16, 2014[64].
  • Hameed SABZA son of Mohammad, age 29, from Nawdsha region, went under the security forces frining and was wounded on December 18, 2014[65].
  • Matin KARIMI son of Mohammadhazir, age 20, from Nawdsha region, went under the security forces frining and was wounded on December 18, 2014[66].
  • Azad ATMANI son of Afroz, age 30, from Salmas town, was shot dead by border security forces in the “Parwêsh Khoarn” border area, on December 25, 2014[67].

The Islamic Republic of Iran is part of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the indiscriminate killings of kulbaran (border couriers), constitute an obvious violation not only of Iran’s domestic laws but also of ISCESR in particular of Article 9 –Right to social security, Article 7 – Right to just and favourable conditions of work, Article 6 – Right to Work and Article 11 – Right to an adequate standard.

The Association for Human Rights in Kurdistan of Iran-Geneva (KMMK-G) wish to draw the attention of United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child and ask the Committee to recommend the Islamic Republic of Iran to halt the indiscriminate killings of Kurdish civilians.

 

Geneva, 5th of February 2015

Association for Human Rights in Kurdistan of Iran-Geneva (KMMK-G)

[1] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//13585

[2] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//13627

[3] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//13637

[4] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//13768

[5] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//13830

[6] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//13801

[7] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14102

[8] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14036

[9] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14160

[10] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14184

[11] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14212

[12] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14256

[13] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14287

[14] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14287

[15] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14388

[16] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14388

[17] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14551

[18] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14927

[19] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14993

[20] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//14993

[21] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15109

[22] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15109

[23] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15129

[24] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15317

[25] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15393

[26] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15464

[27] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15464

[28] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15506

[29] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15533

[30] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15542

[31] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15684

[32] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15702

[33] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15793

[34] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15875

[35] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15933

[36] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15933

[37] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//15950

[38] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16001

[39] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16098

[40] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16123

[41] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16166

[42] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16166

[43] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16264

[44] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16297

[45] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16312

[46] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16302

[47] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16388

[48] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16505

[49] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16625

[50] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16631

[51] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16661

[52] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16661

[53] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16661

[54] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16716

[55] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16716

[56] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16890

[57] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16909

[58] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16956

[59] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16956

[60] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//16956

[61] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//17004

[62] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//17116

[63] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//17152

[64] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//17806

[65] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//17834

[66] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//17834

[67] http://www.kurdpa.net/sorani/dreje//17928

HUMAN RIGHTS AND KURDISH MOTHER TONGUE EDUCATION IN IRAN

HUMAN RIGHTS AND KURDISH MOTHER TONGUE EDUCATION IN IRAN

KMMK-G report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child

 

Report prepared by Professor Salih Akin  from University of Rouen for KMMK-G to be presented to the Committee on the Rights of the Child

 

Belonging to the family of Indo-European languages, Kurdish is part of the Iranian group of this family, which gathers several modern languages such as Ossetic, Persian, Balochi, Tadjik, etc. Kurdish is currently spoken by approximately 35 million speakers divided between four countries (Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey). The inexistence of national institutions led Kurdish to develop on a polydialectal structure which included many dialects, namely Kurmanci, Sorani, Gorani and Dimili.

A part from Iraq, where Kurdish became the second language of the Federative Republic of Iraq in October 2005, Kurdish is nowhere taught as mother tongue in the countries in which Kurds are dispersed. As a crucial means for minorities groups to express their cultural identity, the education in mother tongue is guaranteed by several international treaties. On this basis, the ban of the education in mother tongue is seen as a violation of basic human right. In this paper, we focus on the situation of Kurdish in Islamic Republic of Iran, which continues to deny the mother tongue education to its Kurdish community.

 

MOTHER TONGUE EDUCATION AS BASIC HUMAN RIGHT

Several international and European treaties and agreements guarantee the right to the use and education in mother tongue as fundamental human right. For example, the UN Minorities Declaration, adopted by the General Assembly in December 1992, stipulates that “States should take appropriate measures so that, wherever possible, persons belonging to minorities have adequate opportunities to learn their mother tongue or to have instruction in their mother tongue”. The Hague Recommendations Regarding the Education Rights of National Minorities (1996), The Oslo Recommendations Regarding the Education Rights of National Minorities (1998), Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1995) contain same linguistic rights with different formulations. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages Charter considers languages as a rich cultural heritage and history to back up, advocating measures for the protection, the diffusion and the education of minority languages. It implicitly accepts that the linguistic structure of the individual must enter all the freedoms to preserve. The rights specified in the declarations and conventions can be summarized as below:

  • use of minority languages in public and personal activities and broadcasting • use of minority language in public and private schools
  • education in minority languages in state schools, • services in minority languages in government offices • use of minority alphabets in the personal activities • broadcasting, media and press in minority languages • use of minority languages in place names (town, village, street)

 


 “a restricted and controlled tolerance”

In the Islamic Republic of Iran, where Persian-Shiite group holds the state power, the Kurds suffer from a double discrimination: as Kurds and as Sunnites Muslims. The Ethnologue lists seventy-six languages for Iran, but only Persian has official status.[1] Kurdish is the third largest language in Iran (about 7-8 million speakers) and its speakers make up the second largest Kurdish population after Turkey. Unlike Iraq, Kurdish has no status in Iran, which declared Persian the official language of all Iranians in its first constitution in 1906. Prescribing to the ideology of one-nation=one-language, the state banned non-Persian languages, such as Arabic, Azeri, Balochi, Kurdish, which was called a “dialect” of Persian. Demands for language rights, particularly education through the medium of mother tongue, both in Kurdistan and other regions (e.g., Azerbaijan), were either ignored or rejected outright. Some researchers categorize the situation of Kurdish in Iran during both monarchy regimes as “linguicide”[2]. According to J. Sheyholislami, the status of minority languages could be characterized as “restricted and controlled tolerance”[3].

 

The benefits of the mother tongue education

Many studies have shown children do better if they get a basic education in their own language. Learning in the mother tongue has cognitive and emotional value. The mother tongue-based education significantly increases the chances of school success and gives better results[4]. Correspondingly, the children’s lack of mother tongue knowledge would perform poorly in their academic success. This absence would prevent the construction of a “reference language”[5], that is to say the language in which metalinguistic skills, the activities of analysis and of language control are developed. This reference language allows the learning of new linguistic systems.

Searches based on the transmission of mother tongue from parents to their children come to the conclusion that children who have acquired the mother tongue of their parents have better educational outcomes than those who did not acquired[6]. In New Zealand, a recent study showed that Maori children who received basic education in their own language performed better than those educated in English only. In the United States, a research unit at George Mason University in Virginia has monitored results at twenty-three primary schools in fifteen States since 1985. Four out of six different curricula involved were partly conducted in the mother tongue. The survey shows that, after eleven years of schooling, there is a direct link between academic results and the time spent learning in the mother tongue. Those who do best in secondary school have had a bilingual education.

The importance of mother tongue in structuration of individual and in the education leads some countries to include in the school not only the minority languages, but also the immigrant languages. The Sweden constitutes no doubt a model in Europe. More than 110 immigrant languages, including Kurdish, are taught at school. Mother tongue-based education not only increases access to skills but also raises the quality of basic education by facilitating classroom interaction and integration of prior knowledge and experiences with new learning.

According to a research on pupils attending at the mother tongue education in 18 municipalities, the pupils who attend have better results on Swedish, English and Mathematics those pupils who do not attend, speak better Swedish, and realize better abstract concepts. From cultural considerations, as insofar as personal identity is often associated with speaking one’s mother-tongue, these pupils feel themselves more secure and peaceful and learn more about the host country. Finally they constitute a bridge to integration, have more prominent development of their identity and are more confidence in themselves and tolerant towards other cultures.

 

minority languages REVITALIZATION by SCHOOL

The school is certainty the best medium to revitalize minority languages. Several endangered minority or indigenous languages have been rescued from extinction or have been maintained by education and school. For example, Teresa L. McCarty, who worked on the case of Native American communities and schools in the USA, shows with evidence that strong Indigenous bilingual / immersion / intercultural education (IBIIE) programs can do much to stabilize and strengthen indigenous language proficiency and use and enhance educational opportunities and outcomes among the younger generations[7].

Since the teaching of Breton and Corsican languages in 1995 in public school system in France, these regional languages know a significant interest in particular among young people who link their language to their identity[8]. The case of Welsh is also interested; through the language policy of 1970, the Welsh spoken by 600.000 persons have a co-official language statute of Wales’s country and is teaching in public school until 16 years of pupils. The school teaching is alternated with in full immersion system for half of pupils. In a recent research concerning Maori language spoken in New Zealand, Stephen May and Richard Hill note also the importance of full immersion, because from the establishment of the first Kohanga Reo (preschool ‘language nest’) in 1982, Maori-medium education has been predicated upon the principle of He korero Maori (‘speaking in Maori’). The practice of full immersion is presented as distinct from bilingual education involving use of both Maori and English[9].

 

PROSPECTS FOR A THREATENed MINORITY LANGUAGE

It is clear that Kurdish is evaluating in an unfavourable process due to the lack of official recognition and mother tongue education apart from Iraq. Iran seems to be determined in pursuing its restrictive tolerance, without conferring any linguistic rights to its Kurdish community. According to D. Crystal and J. Fishman, there are several factors which may help a language to progress. Crystal (2000) postulates that an endangered language will progress especially if its speakers increase their prestige within the dominant community, have a strong presence in the education system and can write down the language[10]. J. Fishman’s model for reviving threatened languages or for making them sustainable consists of an eight-stage process[11]. Much of these measures are similar to Crystal’s factors, but Fishman suggests, in stage n°5, that where the state permits it, and where numbers warrant, encourage the use of the language in compulsory state education. Education plays a crucial role in the extinction of a language, when it is used as a mean of linguistic and cultural assimilation, but it can also support the survival and development of an endangered language. So, concerning Kurdish, a viable programme must include first the constitutional recognition of Kurdish and the implementation of a public education system of teaching the Kurdish language at school and university levels. The use of Kurdish in administration and public institutions in the Kurdish majority areas and the use of Kurdish in socio-political activities must also be legalized.

 

 

[1] http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ir (accessed 30 January 2015).

[2] Hassanpour A. (1992). Nationalism and language in Kurdistan, 1918-1985. San Francisco: Mellon Research University Press.

[3] Sheyholislami J. (2012). “ Kurdish in Iran: A case of restricted and controlled tolerance”, in International Journal of the Sociology of Language, No. 217, 19–47

[4] Baker C. (2000). A parents’ and teachers’ guide to bilingualism. 2nd Edition. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Cummins J. (1979). « Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children », Review of Educational Research, 49, 222-25l.

[5] Lucchini S. (1997). « Effet des langues hybrides parentales sur la phonologie et la métaphonologie d’enfants d’origine italienne », Revue de psychologie de l’éducation, 3, 9-32. ; Lucchini, S. (2005). « L’enfant entre plusieurs langues : à la recherche d’une langue de référence », Enfance, n° 57

[6] Peltzer-Karpf, A., Wurnig V., Schwab B., Griessler M., Akkuß R., Lederwasch K., Piwonka D., Blazevic T., Brizic K. (2003). Bilingualer Spracherwerb in der Migration. Psycholinguistische Langzeitstudie (1999–2003) (Endbericht). Vienna: BMBWK. Unpublished; available from the Austrian Ministry of Education.

 

[7] McCarty, T.L. (2006), ‘Voice and choice in Indigenous language revitalization’, Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 5(4): 308–15.

[8] Fusina, J., 2000, The Corsican Language in Education in France, Leeuwarden, Mercator Education, 59 p.; Jaffe A. 2003, « ‘Imagined Competence’: Classroom Evaluation, Collective Identity and Linguistic Authenticity in a Corsican Bilingual Classroom », In Linguistic Anthropology of Education . Stanton Wortham & Betsy Rymes, éds. Westport CT : Praeger.

[9] May S. & Hill R. (2008), Maori-medium education : current issues and challenges, in Nancy Hornberger (ed): Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents. 66-98, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan

[10] Crystal D.. (2000). Language death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[11] Fishman J.-A. (1991). Reversing Language Shift. Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages, Clevedon, England : Multilingual Matters.

 

The KMMK-G’s 2014 report on landmines’ victims in Iranian Kurdistan

The KMMK-G’s 2014 report on landmines’ victims in Iranian Kurdistan

Girl_Landmine_victim

Iran is one of the most mined countries in the Middle East. Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War (ERW), especially unexploded ordnance (UXO) — which includes remnants of cluster munitions — litter Iran as a result of the Iran-Iraq War that lasted from 1980 to 1988 and as well as an armed conflict between state army and Kurdish non-state armed combatants[1]. During the War and the internal conflict, the Iranian army placed an estimated 20 million landmines throughout its border with Iraq, a region that covers more than four million hectares (15,444 square miles). According to Iran’s Mine Action Centre’s Head, Brig. Gen. M H Amir Ahmadi, over 10,000 people were killed due to landmines[2]. Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War affect particularly the Kurdish provinces — Kurdistan, Western Azerbaijan, Ilam and Kermanshah are all close to Iraq — as well as Khuzestan (Ahwaz – Arab region)[3].

According to our statistics, from the beginning of 2013 till now, 89 civilians suffered landmines explosions in Kurdish four provinces. 12 of them are aged less than 15 years old. In 2013, 46 civilians walked on landmines and explosive remnants of war, 11 of them died and 35 of them incurred disabilities or injuries[4]. In 2014, 43 Kurdish civilians incurred disabilities or injuries due to landmines and unexploded munitions. Nine individuals have lost their life, 12 has lost a leg and the rest were injured and four of them seriously (please refer to the list below with references in Farsi).

The Islamic Republic of Iran is part of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and according to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, respect for the rights of the child on the part of States parties includes the need to adopt active post-conflict safety measures necessary to restore and protect rights, including in areas where landmines pose a threat to the safety of children, and that investment must be made to ensure the complete clearing of landmines and cluster bombs from all affected areas.

Despite the elevated number of landmines human casualties and despite the United Nations and international community repeated calls on the Iranian government to ratify the Ottawa Landmine Ban Convention, the Islamic Republic of Iran refuses to adhere to the convention and fails to take necessary measures to clear Kurdistan from landmines.

The Association for Human Rights in Kurdistan of Iran-Geneva (KMMK-G) wish to draw the attention of the United Nations, UNSR and other stake holders to urge the Islamic Republic of Iran to join to the Ottawa Convention and to take immediate steps to assist the landmines victims.

A summary of landmines and explosive remnant of war casualties in 2014in Iranian Kurdistan:

  • Hossein DADWARI, age 55, from Ilam province stepped on a landmine on January 4, 2014 and lost his life[5].
  • Foad ROSTAMI, age 19, ( border courier) from Saqez town stepped on landmines on January 22, 2014 and were severely wounded. His colleague Mr. Bahnam Restgar (son of Sadeeq) from Baharstan village, Saqez town, western Azerbaijan province, was injured from the right hand. Another border-courier named Mr. Khaled Mohammed from Baharstan village, Saqez town, Western Azerbaijan province, has also stepped on landmine and lost a leg[6].
  • Mustafa ABDULLAH BAG son of Jalil from Bimzoorty village stepped on landmine on February 2, 2014 and lost a leg and an eye[7].
  • Dana Yusefi ( a 12 years old boy) who went with his family to a picnic in Qasreshirin (Kermanshah) but stepped on landmines and lost a leg on February 3, 2014.
  • Hadi POUZISH from Mehran town (Kermanshah), due to the explosion of undetonated mortar in his house, has lost his life on March 3, 2014. His wife and his father were also wounded in the explosion[8].
  • Jamal KARIMI, son of Rashid, age 50, a shepherd, from “Gilchiar” village from Mariwan town. Mr. Karimi while sheeping in an abandoned military compound area, he stepped on a landmine and lost a leg on April 5, 2014[9] and[10].
  • Omar DEHQAN, from “Asnawa” village form Mariwan town walked on a landmine and lost a leg on April 6, 2014[11].
  • Omid Ali JANI (From Sawa twon from Arak province) who was doing his military service in Mariwan town stepped on a landmine in “Bastami” area and was wounded[12].
  • Ghulamreza ULFATI while demining walked on landmine and lost a leg April 7, 2014.
  • Faiq AHMEDZADEH known as Faiq Darwesh Mahmud from “Sardoshi” village from Mariwan town, stepped on landmine and lost a leg on April 10, 2014[13].
  • Eskandar GURGI, age 45, from Dehloran (Ilam province) stepped on landmine on April 14, 2014 and was seriously injured[14]
  • Ali ANBARI son of Muhamad Hasso, age 35, from “Konakhanê” village from Pirnashar town, steeped on landmine and lost a leg on April 24, 2014[15].
  • Mr Armin YUSUFFI, a fourth primary class student, from “Shekh Sela” village from Salas Bawajani area (Kermanshah) walked on a landmine and was wounded on April 24, 2014[16].
  • Fareed QADERI, from “Salasbawajani” area (Kermanshah) stepped on landmines and lost a leg[17].
  • Rezgar RAWSHANI, age 30, a border-courier (Kolbar), stepped on a landmine and lost a leg on April 27, 2014[18].
  • Mohammad SA’ADATNIA, son of Ali, age 26, from “Delawaran” village from Piranshar town walked on a landmine and lost his right leg on May 11, 2014[19].
  • Amir ALIPOUR, from “Naftshar or NaftShah” town (Kermanshah province) stepped on a landmine and lost a leg on June 6, 2014[20].
  • Mohammad QURDUWEE MILAN, age 25, a Kolbar (border-courier) from “Aland” area from Xoy town, stepped on landmine and was wounded on June 20, 2014[21].
  • Du to manipulation of unexploded munition of Iran-Iraq war, a family incurred casualties and disabilities on July 17, 2014. The chief (father of the family) lost life, four other persons were wounded: Hoshiar Bêbak a child, Mrs. Mariam IBRAHIMPOUR a 60 years old lady, two females children named Ms. Gulzar Bêbak and Leila ALLAPOUR[22].
  • Sherzad HUSHMATIAN from Qasreshirin town walked on landmine and was seriously injured on September 9, 2014[23].
  • Habib SADEQINAZHAD from Mehran town (Kermanshah) stepped on landmine and lost a leg[24].
  • Marwan son of Sulaiman from “Bawasani” village from “Salas Babajani” area (Kermanshah) stepped on landmine and was injured[25].
  • Two Kolbar (border courier) Mr. Adel MOHAMMADIAN and Mr.Qader NABATI from Saqez town walked on landmine and were wounded on November 5, 2014. In the same time another Kurdish Sheperd from “Salas Bawajani” area was also wounded by landmine explosion[26].
  • Two farmers from Qasreshirin (Kermanshah) stepped on landmines in “Gandumban” area while working their land and were wounded, on November 16, 2014[27].
  • Nazar MORADI, age 61, hes husband Mr. Hossein AZIZI, their son Mr. Jaffar AZIZI, age 35 were killed due to a mortar explosion (dated to Iran-Iraq war). Another member of the family (son) was seriously wounded on December 1st, 2014[28].

 

 

Geneva, 5th of February 2015

Association for Human Rights in Kurdistan of Iran-Geneva (KMMK-G)

[1] http://www.jmu.edu/cisr/journal/11.2/focus/kohli/kohli.shtml

[2] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rE3OlSFV5M8&feature=youtu.be, consulted on February 2015.

[3] http://www.jmu.edu/cisr/journal/11.2/focus/kohli/kohli.shtml

[4] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame/18443

[5] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//13633

[6] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//13831

[7] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14125

[8] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14312

[9] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14781

[10] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14736

[11] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14781

[12] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14781

[13] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14781

[14] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14832

[15] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14924

[16] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14924

[17] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14924

[18] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//14989

[19] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//15174

[20] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//15541

[21] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//15700

[22] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//16014

[23] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//16611

[24] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//16611

[25] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//17214

[26] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//17303

[27] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//17432

[28] http://www.kurdpa.net/farsi/idame//17608

© Association pour les Droits Humains au Kurdistan d'Iran-Genève (KMMK-G) - Admin -